Report

Automating Society

About the report & link references

Automating Society – Taking Stock of Automated Decision-Making in the EU A report by AlgorithmWatch in cooperation with Bertelsmann Stiftung, supported by the Open Society Foundations To read th…

Automating Society – Taking Stock of Automated Decision-Making in the EU

A report by AlgorithmWatch in cooperation with Bertelsmann Stiftung, supported by the Open Society Foundations

  • To read the report online, choose a chapter in the menu.
  • To download the report as a PDF file click here.
  • If you have a printed copy of the report, you find the complete link references below – click here to jump to the links.
  • Watch the presentation and discussion of the report in European Parliament on 29 January 2019 here.

About the report

Systems for automated decision-making or decision support (ADM) are on the rise in EU countries: Profiling job applicants based on their personal emails in Finland, allocating treatment for patients in the public health system in Italy, sorting the unemployed in Poland, automatically identifying children vulnerable to neglect in Denmark, detecting welfare fraud in the Netherlands, credit scoring systems in many EU countries – the range of applications has broadened to almost all aspects of daily life.

This begs a lot of questions: Do we need new laws? Do we need new oversight institutions? Who do we fund to develop answers to the challenges ahead? Where should we invest? How do we enable citizens – patients, employees, consumers – to deal with this?

For the report “Automating Society – Taking Stock of Automated Decision-Making in the EU”, our experts have looked at the situation at the EU level but also in 12 Member States: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands Poland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the UK. We assessed not only the political discussions and initiatives in these countries but also present a section “ADM in Action” for all states, listing examples of automated decision-making already in use.

This is the first time a comprehensive study has been done on the state of automated decision-making in Europe.

 

INTRODUCTION

[IN 1] http://www-personal.umich.edu/%7Ecsandvig/research/Auditing%20Algorithms%20–%20Sandvig%20–%20ICA%202014%20Data%20and%20Discrimination%20Preconference.pdf

 

EUROPEAN UNION

[EU 1] https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/eu-member-states-sign-cooperate-artificial-intelligence

[EU 2] https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/communication-artificial-intelligence-europe

[EU 3] https://www.algoaware.eu/state-of-the-art-report/

[EU 4] https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=COM:2018:0232:FIN

[EU 5] https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/proposal-revision-directive-200398ec-reuse-public-sector-information

[EU 6] https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/artificial-intelligence-ai4eu-project-launches-1-january-2019

[EU 7] https://ec.europa.eu/research/ege/pdf/ege_ai_statement_2018.pdf

[EU 8] https://ec.europa.eu/transport/sites/transport/files/3rd-mobility-pack/com20180283_en.pdf

[EU 9] https://ec.europa.eu/info/publications/renewed-european-agenda-research-and-innovation-europes-chance-shape-its-future_en

[EU 10] https://www.eesc.europa.eu/en/about

[EU 11] https://www.eesc.europa.eu/en/our-work/opinions-information-reports/opinions/artificial-intelligence

[EU 12] http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+REPORT+A8-2017-0005+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN

[EU 13] http://www.europarl.europa.eu/committees/en/juri/robotics.html?tab=Results

[EU 14] http://www.robotics-openletter.eu

[EU 15] https://www.eesc.europa.eu/en/our-work/opinions-information-reports/opinions/artificial-intelligence

[EU 16] http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0025/002539/253952E.pdf

[EU 17] http://fra.europa.eu/en/about-fra/introducing-fra

[EU 18] http://fra.europa.eu/en/project/2018/artificial-intelligence-big-data-and-fundamental-rights

[EU 19] https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2018/big-data-discrimination

[EU 20] https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2018/prevent-unlawful-profiling

[EU 21] https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/artificial-intelligence-ai4eu-project-launches-1-january-2019

[EU 22] http://ai4eu.org/

[EU 23] https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/high-level-expert-group-artificial-intelligence

[EU 24] https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/commission-appoints-expert-group-ai-and-launches-european-ai-alliance

[EU 25] https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/european-ai-alliance

[EU 26] https://ec.europa.eu/futurium/en/eu-ai-alliance

[EU 27] https://www.accessnow.org/about-us/

[EU 28] https://www.accessnow.org/cms/assets/uploads/2018/11/AI-and-Human-Rights.pdf

[EU 29] https://www.beuc.eu/

[EU 30] https://www.beuc.eu/publications/beuc-x-2018-058_automated_decision_making_and_artificial_intelligence.pdf

[EU 31] https://claire-ai.org/

[EU 32] https://www.eurai.org/organisation

[EU 33] https://www.netzwoche.ch/news/2018-11-12/ibm-forscht-am-hirn-der-kuenstlichen-intelligenz

[EU 34] https://edri.org

[EU 35] https://www.eu-robotics.net/eurobotics/about/about-eurobotics/index.html

[EU 36] http://www.sophia.de/pdf/pdf_others/2017_TG-ELS_position_paper.pdf

[EU 37] https://gdpr-info.eu/

[EU 38] https://privacyinternational.org/report/1718/data-power-profiling-and-automated-decision-making-gdpr

[EU 39] https://www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/fileadmin/files/BSt/Publikationen/GrauePublikationen/BSt_DSGVOundADM_dt.pdf

[EU 40] https://academic.oup.com/idpl/article/7/2/76/3860948

[EU 41] https://edri.org/files/1012EDRi_full_position.pdf

[EU 42] https://edpb.europa.eu/our-work-tools/general-guidance/gdpr-guidelines-recommendations-best-practices_en

[EU 43] https://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/article29/item-detail.cfm?item_id=612053

[EU 44] https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:32016L0680

[EU 45] https://academic.oup.com/idpl/article-abstract/8/1/52/4822279

[EU 46] https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/proposal-regulation-privacy-and-electronic-communications

[EU 47] https://edps.europa.eu/data-protection/our-work/publications/opinions/recommendations-specific-aspects-proposed-eprivacy_en

[EU 48] https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/cyber-security

[EU 49] https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/content/creating-better-internet-kids-0

[EU 50] https://edps.europa.eu/data-protection/our-work/publications/legislation/regulation-ec-no-452001_en

[EU 51] https://edps.europa.eu/sites/edp/files/publication/15-07-30_strategy_2015_2019_update_en.pdf

[EU 52] https://edps.europa.eu/data-protection/our-role-advisor_en

[EU 53] https://edps.europa.eu/data-protection/our-work/publications/opinions/public-sector-information-psi-re-use-directive_en

[EU 54] https://edps.europa.eu/data-protection/our-work/ethics_en

[EU 55] https://edps.europa.eu/data-protection/our-work/publications/international-conferences/resolutions-and-declaration-2018_en

[EU 56] https://edps.europa.eu/data-protection/our-work/publications/opinions/european-network-employment-services_en

[EU 57] https://ec.europa.eu/anti-trafficking/eu-policy/charter-fundamental-rights-european-union_en

[EU 58] https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32000L0043

[EU 59] https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0078:en:HTML

[EU 60] https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32002L0073

[EU 61] https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3195728

[EU 62] https://curia.europa.eu/jcms/upload/docs/application/pdf/2018-04/cp180046en.pdf

[EU 63] https://ec.europa.eu/info/business-economy-euro/banking-and-finance/financial-markets/securities-markets/investment-services-and-regulated-markets-markets-financial-instruments-directive-mifid_en#mifid-2-and-mifir

[EU 64] http://www.nortonrosefulbright.com/knowledge/publications/115236/mifid-ii-mifir-series

[EU 65] https://www.esma.europa.eu/policy-rules/mifid-ii-and-mifir

[EU 66] https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=celex:32012R1025

[EU 67] https://www.cen.eu

[EU 68] https://www.cencenelec.eu

[EU 69] https://www.etsi.org/

[EU 70] https://ec.europa.eu/transport/sites/transport/files/3rd-mobility-pack/com20180283_en.pdf

[EU 71] https://background.tagesspiegel.de/regeln-fuer-autonomes-fahren

[EU 72] https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/open-public-consultation-connected-and-automated-mobility-cam

[EU 73] https://ec.europa.eu/info/consultations/public-consultation-recommendation-connected-and-automated-mobility-cam_en

[EU 74] https://www.h2020-dante.eu/

[EU 75] https://tensor-project.eu/

[EU 76] http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-162_en.htm

[EU 77] https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32018R1726#ntc8-L_2018295EN.01009901-E0008

[EU 78] https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/doc_centre/borders/docs/1_en_act_part1_v14.pdf

[EU 79] https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/what-we-do/policies/borders-and-visas/smart-borders/docs/smart_borders_pilot_-_technical_report_annexes_en.pdf

[EU 80] https://netzpolitik.org/2017/ganz-schoen-kompliziert-die-europaeischen-datentoepfe/

[EU 81] https://www.eulisa.europa.eu/Activities

[EU 82] https://etias.com/

[EU 83] https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32017R2226&rid=1

[EU 84] https://edps.europa.eu/sites/edp/files/publication/2018-04-16_interoperability_opinion_en.pdf

[EU 85] https://www.ips-journal.eu/topics/european-union/article/show/borderline-intrusive-1902/

[EU 86] http://fra.europa.eu/en/speech/2017/fundamental-rights-and-interoperability-eu-information-systems

[EU 87] https://www.iborderctrl.eu/The-project

[EU 88] https://www.iborderctrl.eu/Pilots

[EU 89] https://www.iborderctrl.eu/sites/default/files/publications/iBorderCtrl%20global%20presentation%20v5.pdf

[EU 90] http://www.spiegel.de/netzwelt/web/projekt-iborderctrl-darf-und-kann-ki-luegner-bei-der-einreise-stoppen-a-1238448.html

[EU 91] http://ec.europa.eu/research/infocentre/article_en.cfm?artid=49726

[EU 92] https://www.iborderctrl.eu/Technical-Framework

[EU 93] http://ec.europa.eu/research/infocentre/article_en.cfm?artid=49726

 

BELGIUM

[BE 1] http://digitalbelgium.be/en/5-priorities/digital-infrastructure/

[BE 2] https://trends.levif.be/economie/politique-economique/l-intelligence-artificielle-vue-par-charles-michel/article-normal-834945.html

[BE 3] https://www.dropbox.com/s/5e64ylub6nudt75/17179%20Big_Data_Rapport_2017%20NL.pdf?dl=0

[BE 4] https://overheid.vlaanderen.be/informatie-vlaanderen/vlaanderen-radicaal-digitaal

[BE 5] https://overheid.vlaanderen.be/artificiele-intelligentie

[BE 6] https://philippemuyters.prezly.com/30-miljoen-euro-voor-vlaams-actieplan-artificiele-intelligentie

[BE 7] https://www.ewi-vlaanderen.be/evenementen/stakeholdersoverleg-artificiele-intelligentie

[BE 8] https://www.supernovafest.eu

[BE 9] https://www.vlaamsparlement.be/plenaire-vergaderingen/1274143/verslag/1275298

[BE 10] https://onderwijsaanbod.kuleuven.be/opleidingen/e/CQ_50268936.htm#activetab=diploma_omschrijving

[BE 11] https://www.digitalwallonia.be/fr/publications/plandunumerique

[BE 12] http://www.liguedh.be

[BE 13] https://mensenrechten.be

[BE 14] http://www.privacysalon.org

[BE 15] http://www.kvab.be/sites/default/rest/blobs/1489/nw_artificieleintelligentie.pdf

[BE 16] http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/cgi_loi/change_lg.pl?language=nl&la=N&table_name=wet&cn=1992120832

[BE 17] https://www.huntonprivacyblog.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/28/2018/09/20180730-Belgian-law.pdf

[BE 18] https://www.vrt.be/vrtnws/nl/2018/07/04/resolutie-killerrobots/

[BE 19] http://www.dewereldmorgen.be/artikel/2017/05/12/vdab-is-watching-you

[BE 20] https://www.nieuwsblad.be/cnt/dmf20170903_03051686

[BE 21] https://www.vdab.be/blogs/fonsleroy/algoritmisch-activeren

[BE 22] http://www.standaard.be/cnt/dmf20160517_02292901

[BE 23] https://dominiquesoenens.wordpress.com/2016/06/09/de-politie-van-de-toekomst-iedereen-verdacht/

[BE 24] https://www.dekamer.be/QRVA/pdf/54/54K0093.pdf

[BE 25] https://www.vrt.be/vrtnws/nl/2018/08/30/politie-wil-criminele-feiten-kunnen-voorspellen-aan-de-hand-van/

 

DENMARK

[DK 1] https://www.fm.dk/nyheder/pressemeddelelser/2018/10/danskerne-skal-have-digital-service-i-verdensklasse

[DK 2] https://www.fm.dk/nyheder/pressemeddelelser/2018/10/investeringsfond

[DK 3] https://politiken.dk/udland/art6785673/Danmark-skal-have-den-etiske-f%C3%B8rerposition-i-det-globale-r%C3%A6s-om-kunstig-intelligens

[DK 4] https://www.regeringen.dk/nyheder/strategi-for-danmarks-digitale-vaekst/

[DK 5] https://digitalhubdenmark.dk/

[DK 6] http://www.teknologipagten.dk/teknologipagten/om-teknologipagten

[DK 7] http://www.teknologipagten.dk/projekter/projekter

[DK 8] https://www.sum.dk/Aktuelt/Publikationer/Strategi-for-digital-sundhed-2018-2022-januar-2018.aspx

[DK 9] http://www.etiskraad.dk/etiske-temaer/sundhedsdata

[DK 10] https://dataethics.eu/forudsigelser-med-persondata-boer-stoppe-foer-individet/

[DK 11] https://ufm.dk/publikationer/2017/danmark-klar-til-fremtiden

[DK 12] https://www.fm.dk/publikationer/2016/et-staerkere-og-mere-trygt-digitalt-samfund

[DK 13] https://ida.dk/content/deltagere-i-sirikommissionen

[DK 14] https://ida.dk/content/kommissorium-sirikommissionen

[DK 15] https://ida.dk/om-ida/temaer/siri-kommissionen/etik-og-ai-scenarier-fra-siri-kommissionen/

[DK 16] https://dataethics.eu/kunstig-intelligens-de-dataetiske-spoergsmaal/

[DK 17] http://justitia-int.org/zetland-kunstig-intelligens-retssystemet/

[DK 18] http://dataetikdk.dk/om/

[DK 19] https://www.fm.dk/nyheder/pressemeddelelser/2018/01/digitaliseringsklar-1

[DK 20] https://www.fm.dk/~/media/files/nyheder/pressemeddelelser/2018/01/digitaliseringsklar-lovgivning.ashx?la=da

[DK 21] https://www.retsinformation.dk/forms/R0710.aspx?id=202556

[DK 22] https://www.retsinformation.dk/forms/R0710.aspx?id=180142

[DK 23] http://justitia-int.org/hoeringssvarvejledning-om-digitaliseringsklar-lovgivning/

[DK 24] https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=201317

[DK 25] www.ft.dk/ripdf/samling/20171/lovforslag/l68/20171_l68_betaenkning.pdf

[DK 26] https://www.version2.dk/artikel/databeskyttelseslov-bagdoere-papes-oplysningspligt-borgerne-1085164

[DK 27] http://www.justitsministeriet.dk/nyt-og-presse/pressemeddelelser/2017/nye-regler-styrker-beskyttelsen-af-persondata-i-europa

[DK 28] http://www.ombudsmanden.dk/myndighedsguiden/specifikke_sagsomraader/generelle_forvaltningsretlige_krav_til_offentlige_it-systemer/

[DK 29] http://law.au.dk/credi/

[DK 30] http://www.justitsministeriet.dk/nyt-og-presse/pressemeddelelser/2017/nye-regler-styrker-beskyttelsen-af-persondata-i-europa

[DK 31] https://www.datatilsynet.dk/tilsyn-og-afgoerelser/historiske-afgoerelser/2006/feb/consumer-delphi-og-commercial-delphi/

[DK 32] https://www.datatilsynet.dk/find/?query=kreditoplysning

[DK 33] https://www.version2.dk/artikel/din-bank-ved-mere-dig-end-nogensinde-foer-vil-gerne-vide-meget-mere-1080534

[DK 34] https://www.computerworld.dk/art/235970/ny-direktoer-for-it-gigant-i-danmark-her-er-vores-planer-for-den-danske-forretning

[DK 35] https://www.alka.dk/bilforsikring/alka-boks

[DK 36] https://finanswatch.dk/Finansnyt/Forsikring/article8580247.ece

[DK 37] http://www2.gladsaxe.dk/C12575EB003B3720/0/A3E635E7C75A3FCDC1258199004147C0/$FILE/Bilag_176.1.1_Ans%C3%B8gning.pdf

[DK 38] https://oim.dk/nyheder/nyhedsarkiv/2017/dec/regeringen-siger-ja-til-33-nye-forsoeg-i-frikommunerne/

[DK 39] https://politiken.dk/indland/art6365403/Regeringen-vil-overv%C3%A5ge-alle-landets-b%C3%B8rnefamilier-og-uddele-point

[DK 40] https://politiken.dk/indland/art6367735/For%C3%A6ldre-skal-spores-for-b%C3%B8rnenes-skyld

[DK 41] https://politiken.dk/indland/art6288856/Sm%C3%A5b%C3%B8rns-trivsel-registreres-bag-om-ryggen-p%C3%A5-for%C3%A6ldrene

[DK 42] https://videnskab.dk/kultur-samfund/naar-vi-maaler-trivsel-paavirker-det-boernene

[DK 43] https://politiken.dk/indland/art6495639/Vil-databeskyttelsesloven-leve-op-til-sit-navn

[DK 44] https://www.regeringen.dk/nyheder/ghettoudspil/

[DK 45] https://www.regeringen.dk/media/4937/publikation_%C3%A9t-danmark-uden-parallelsamfund.pdf

[DK 46] https://www.rm.dk/om-os/aktuelt/nyheder/nyheder-2017/april-17/ny-viden-om-patientadfard-skal-gore-sundhedsvasenet-mere-proaktivt/

[DK 47] http://www.mtic.dk/hvad-er-tvaerspor/

[DK 48] http://www.regionshospitalet-horsens.dk/om-os/virksomhedsgrundlag/strategiske-indsatser/tvarspor/

[DK 49] https://innovationsfonden.dk/da/nyheder-presse-og-job/innovationsfonden-vil-spare-sundhedsvaesnet-milliarder

[DK 50] https://www.fm.dk/nyheder/pressemeddelelser/2018/10/investeringsfond

[DK 51] https://dataethics.eu/forudsigelser-med-persondata-boer-stoppe-foer-individet/

[DK 52] https://www.dr.dk/nyheder/penge/skandalen-om-skats-it-system-efter-11-aars-fiasko-koster-det-millioner-lukke-efi-ned

[DK 53] https://www.skm.dk/media/1263547/Kammeradvokatens-legalitetsanalyse.pdf

[DK 54] www.skm.dk/media/1263581/Skat-ud-af-krisen.pdf

[DK 55] https://www.information.dk/indland/2016/10/danmark-koeber-overvaagningssystem-millioner-nsa-leverandoer

[DK 56] https://ted.europa.eu/TED/notice/udl?uri=TED:NOTICE:455908-2015:TEXT:DA:HTML

[DK 57] https://ted.europa.eu/TED/notice/udl?uri=TED:NOTICE:444671-2016:TEXT:DA:HTML

[DK 58] https://www.information.dk/indland/2016/10/danmark-koeber-overvaagningssystem-millioner-nsa-leverandoer

[DK 59] http://www.justitsministeriet.dk/nyt-og-presse/pressemeddelelser/2015/et-staerkt-vaern-mod-terror

[DK 60] https://www.berlingske.dk/samfund/politiet-vil-tjekke-millioner-af-danske-nummerplader

[DK 61] https://taenk.dk/om-os/presserum/forbrugernes-data-kan-bruges-til-diskriminere-paa-pris

[DK 62] https://taenk.dk/test-og-forbrugerliv/digitale-tjenester/cookies-saadan-paavirker-de-prisen-paa-nettet

[DK 63] https://di.ku.dk/begivenhedsmappe/begivenheder-2017/konference-gode-offentlige-it-projekter/mikkel-folmoe/

[DK 64] https://di.ku.dk/begivenhedsmappe/begivenheder-2017/konference-gode-offentlige-it-projekter/slides/mikkel-folmoe.pdf

[DK 65] https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=185302

[DK 66] https://www.regionh.dk/presse-og-nyt/pressemeddelelser-og-nyheder/Sider/Ny-aftale-om-udvikling-af-kunstig-intelligens-i-sundhedsv%C3%A6senet.aspx

[DK 67] https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=185302

[DK 68] https://www.regionh.dk/presse-og-nyt/pressemeddelelser-og-nyheder/Sider/Ny-aftale-om-udvikling-af-kunstig-intelligens-i-sundhedsv%C3%A6senet.aspx

[DK 69] https://ing.dk/artikel/watson-skal-hjaelpe-danske-radiologer-diabetespatienter-207526

[DK 70] https://ing.dk/artikel/doktor-watson-modvind-foreslog-livsfarlig-medicin-danske-patienter-207529

[DK 71] https://www.regionh.dk/politik/nye-moeder/Documents/20170316%20Samlet%20materiale%20til%20udvalget.pdf

[DK 72] https://finans.dk/debat/ECE9742204/lad-os-ikke-forfoere-af-vidunderrobotten-watson/?ctxref=ext

 

FINLAND

[FI 1] https://www.tekoalyaika.fi/en/reports/finlands-age-of-artificial-intelligence/

[FI 2] https://www.tekoalyaika.fi/en/reports/work-in-the-age-of-artificial-intelligence/

[FI 3] http://www.elementsofai.com/

[FI 4] http://www.fcai.fi/

[FI 5] https://fcai.fi/fcai-society/

[FI 6] https://www.oikeusasiamies.fi/fi/ratkaisut/-/eoar/3379/2018

[FI 7] https://www.taloustaito.fi/Vero/apulaisoikeusasasiamies-haluaa-verottajalta-selvityksen-robottien-kaytosta/

[FI 8] https://vm.fi/en/information-policy-report

[FI 9] https://mydata.org/

[FI10] http://julkaisut.valtioneuvosto.fi/handle/10024/78439

[FI 11] https://www.tekoalyaika.fi/en/background/ethics/

[FI 12] https://www.tekoalyaika.fi/en/companies/

[F 13] https://www.yvtltk.fi/en/index/opinionsanddecisions/decisions.html

[FI 14] https://www.kela.fi/documents/10180/0/Kelan+toimintakertomus+2017+%28pdf%29/7c92b093-4fa4-447e-9895-fece68654aa8

[FI 15] https://www.tivi.fi/Kaikki_uutiset/ei-uutta-mammuttia-kela-metsastaa-nyt-ketteryyden-reseptia-6719151

[FI 16] https://sosiaalivakuutus.fi/robotti-tulee-tyoharjoitteluun/

[FI 17] http://sobottidemo.kanta.fi

[FI 18] https://mycourses.aalto.fi/course/view.php?id=20569

[FI 19] https://www.espoo.fi/en-US/Espoo_experiment_proves_that_artificial_(142925)

[FI 20] https://www.tieto.com/en/success-stories/2018/the-city-of-espoo-a-unique-experiment/

[FI 21] http://www.digitalminds.fi

[FI 22] http://hirevue.com

[FI 23] https://www.kuntaliitto.fi/asiantuntijapalvelut/sosiaali-ja-terveysasiat/akusti/akusti-projektit/oda

[FI 24] https://oirearvio.omaolo-beta.fi/

[FI 25] https://utopiaanalytics.com

 

FRANCE

[FR 1] http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/13/rap-info/i4113.asp

[FR 2] http://www2.assemblee-nationale.fr/documents/notice/15/rap-info/i1335/(index)/rapports-information#P104_5507

[FR 3] https://information.tv5monde.com/info/surveillance-le-reseau-francais-intelligent-d-identification-par-cameras-arrive-242520

[FR 4] https://www.aiforhumanity.fr/

[FR 5] https://www.nextinpact.com/news/106388-intelligence-artificielle-propositions-cedric-villani-au-discours-demmanuel-macron.htm

[FR 6] https://www.economie.gouv.fr/files/files/PDF/2017/Rapport_synthese_France_IA_.pdf

[FR 7] https://cnnumerique.fr/files/2017-10/CNNum_avis_pre%CC%81diction_chiffrement_liberte%CC%81s_sept2017.pdf

[FR 8] https://www.marianne.net/politique/conseil-national-du-numerique-apres-la-polemique-rokhaya-diallo-la-presidente-demissionne

[FR 9] https://entrepreneur-interet-general.etalab.gouv.fr/blog/2018/10/15/fing-algo.html

[FR 10] http://algoglitch.smvi.co/

[FR 11] https://algotransparency.org/

[FR 12] https://dataforgood.fr/

[FR 13] http://fing.org

[FR 14] http://ladataenclair.fr

[FR 15] https://twitter.com/DataClair/status/1047863505293074434

[FR 16] https://www.laquadrature.net/fr

[FR 17] http://arianeinternet.conseil-etat.fr/arianeinternet/getdoc.asp?id=214488&fonds=DCE&item=1

[FR 18] https://www.nextinpact.com/

[FR 19] https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCodeArticle.do;jsessionid=17177635794191FDFDC3B691FA563145.tplgfr23s_1?idArticle=LEGIARTI000033205535&cidTexte=LEGITEXT000031366350&dateTexte=20180917

[FR 20] https://www.nextinpact.com/news/106743-transparence-algorithmes-publics-lavertissement-conseil-constitutionnel.htm

[FR 21] https://www.nextinpact.com/news/106986-obligation-dexplicitation-algorithmes-publics-an-pour-rien.htm

[FR 22] https://www.nextinpact.com/news/106144-transparence-parcoursup-comment-gouvernement-a-enfume-parlementaires.htm

[FR 23] https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichLoiPreparation.do;jsessionid=17177635794191FDFDC3B691FA563145.tplgfr23s_1?idDocument=JORFDOLE000037080861&type=expose&typeLoi=&legislature=

[FR 24] https://www.numerama.com/politique/373473-circulation-des-voitures-autonomes-quel-calendrier-pour-la-france.html

[FR 25] https://www.nextinpact.com/news/106393-vehicules-autonomes-decret-ouvre-voie-a-tests-niveau-4-en-2019.htm

[FR 26] https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/jo_pdf.do?id=JORFTEXT000000886460&pageCourante=00227

[FR 27] https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexteArticle.do;jsessionid=1F286E9FCEF2958D4DBEAFCCE01CB64E.tplgfr23s_1?idArticle=LEGIARTI000037090394&cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006068624&dateTexte=20180926

[FR 28] https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/jo_pdf.do?id=JORFTEXT000000886460&pageCourante=00228

[FR 29] https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexteArticle.do;jsessionid=1F286E9FCEF2958D4DBEAFCCE01CB64E.tplgfr23s_1?idArticle=LEGIARTI000037090146&cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006068624&dateTexte=20180926

[FR 30] https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCodeArticle.do?cidTexte=LEGITEXT000025503132&idArticle=LEGIARTI000030939246

[FR 31] https://www.nextinpact.com/news/105186-les-nouvelles-technologies-dans-projet-loi-anti-terroriste.htm

[FR 32] https://www.cnil.fr/sites/default/files/atoms/files/cnil_rapport_garder_la_main_web.pdf

[FR 33] http://www.securite-routiere.gouv.fr/content/download/38258/364658/version/1/file/Bilan+2017+de+la+s%C3%A9curit%C3%A9+routi%C3%A8re+VF+internet.pdf

[FR 34] https://www.antai.gouv.fr/media/RapportActivite2017.pdf

[FR 35] https://www.bob-emploi.fr/transparence

[FR 36] https://lentreprise.lexpress.fr/rh-management/recrutement/les-promesses-non-tenues-de-bob-emploi_1968228.html

[FR 37] http://www.lefigaro.fr/social/2018/06/13/20011-20180613ARTFIG00007-bob-emploi-cette-appli-magique-qui-etait-censee-enrayer-le-chomage-mais-n-a-pas-fait-de-miracles.php

[FR 38] https://abonnes.lemonde.fr/pixels/article/2017/11/14/les-boites-noires-de-la-loi-sur-le-renseignement-sont-desormais-actives_5214596_4408996.html?xtmc=commission_nationale_de_controle_des_techniques_de_renseignement&xtcr=6

[FR 39] https://www.cnctr.fr/_downloads/NP_CNCTR_2018_rapport_annuel_2017.pdf

[FR 40] https://www.cnil.fr/fr/fichiers-de-mauvais-payeurs-quelles-obligations-quelles-formalites

[FR 41] https://www.cbanque.com/actu/44005/loi-hamon-le-conseil-constitutionnel-rejette-la-creation-un-fichier-des-credits-a-la-consommation

[FR 42] https://abonnes.lemonde.fr/economie/article/2015/06/25/surendettement-le-fichier-positif-definitivement-enterre_4661824_3234.html?

[FR 43] https://www.inserm.fr/information-en-sante/dossiers-information/intelligence-artificielle-et-sante

[FR 44] http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/13/pdf/rap-info/i0659.pdf

[FR 45] https://abonnes.lemonde.fr/sante/article/2012/08/27/le-dossier-medical-personnel-tres-mal-ficele_1751803_1651302.html

[FR 46] http://www.mbadmb.com/2017/07/04/dmp-dossier-medical-partage/

[FR 47] http://www.ordre.pharmacien.fr/content/download/389795/1858448/version/1/file/2017-RA2016-+vDEF.pdf

[FR 48] https://www.nextinpact.com/news/106617-le-gouvernement-ouvre-code-source-parcoursup-mais-pas-ses-algorithmes-locaux.htm

GERMANY

[DE 1] https://www.ki-strategie-deutschland.de/home.html

[DE 2] https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/aktuelles/digitalisierung-wird-chefsache-1140420

[DE 3] https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/aktuelles/digitalrat-experten-die-uns-antreiben-1504866

[DE 4] https://www.plattform-lernende-systeme.de/ueber-die-plattform.html

[DE 5] https://www.plattform-lernende-systeme.de/arbeitsgruppen.html

[DE 6] https://www.plattform-lernende-systeme.de/wg-3.html

[DE 7] https://www.plattform-lernende-systeme.de/ki-akteure.html

[DE 8] http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/19/029/1902978.pdf

[DE 9] https://www.bundestag.de/en/committees/bodies/study/artificial_intelligence

[DE 10] https://www.bundestag.de/dokumente/textarchiv/2018/kw26-de-enquete-kommission-kuenstliche-intelligenz/560330

[DE 11] https://www.bundestag.de/ausschuesse/weitere_gremien/enquete_ki

[DE 12] https://algorithmwatch.org/en/

[DE 13] http://en.vzbv.de

[DE 14] https://www.vzbv.de/sites/default/files/downloads/2018/05/22/dm_17-12-07_vzbv_thesenpapier_algorithmen.pdf

[DE 15] https://ethicsofalgorithms.org

[DE 16] https://www.bitkom.org/EN

[DE 17] https://www.bitkom.org/sites/default/files/file/import/171012-KI-Gipfelpapier-online.pdf

[DE 18] https://www.bitkom.org/sites/default/files/pdf/noindex/Publikationen/2018/Leitfaeden/180202-Empfehlungskatalog-online-2.pdf

[DE 19] https://www.ccc.de/de/topics

[DE 20] https://media.ccc.de/tags/Ethics,%20Society%20&%20Politics

[DE 21] https://gi.de/fileadmin/GI/Hauptseite/Service/Infomaterial/Vorlagen/Introducing_GI_en.pdf

[DE 22] https://gi.de/themen/beitrag/studie-regulierung-von-algorithmischen-entscheidungssystemen/

[DE 23] https://gi.de/meldung/gi-kommentiert-eckpunkte-einer-ki-strategie-der-bundesregierung/

[DE 24] https://initiatived21.de/

[DE 25] https://initiatived21.de/publikationen/denkimpulse-zur-digitalen-ethik/

[DE 26] https://netzpolitik.org/

[DE 27] http://ai-laws.org/#about

[DE 28] http://ai-laws.org/en/#mission-statement

[DE 29] https://www.stiftung-nv.de/de/projekt/algorithmen-fuers-gemeinwohl

[DE 30] https://www.bmi.bund.de/DE/themen/it-und-digitalpolitik/datenethikkommission/datenethikkommission-node.html

[DE 31] https://netzpolitik.org/2018/neue-netzpolitische-gremien-datenethikkommission-besetzt-digitalrat-noch-nicht/

[DE 32] https://www.bmi.bund.de/SharedDocs/downloads/EN/themen/it-digital-policy/key-questions-Data-Ethics-commission.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=4

[DE 33] https://www.bmi.bund.de/SharedDocs/downloads/EN/themen/it-digital-policy/recommendations-data-ethics-commission.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3

[DE 34] https://www.datenschutzzentrum.de/uploads/informationsfreiheit/2018_Positionspapier-Transparenz-von-Algorithmen.pdf

[DE 35] https://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/Artikel/2017/01/2017-01-25-automatisiertes-fahren.html

[DE 36] https://www.bmvi.de/SharedDocs/DE/Pressemitteilungen/2017/084-dobrindt-bericht-der-ethik-kommission.html

[DE 37] https://www.bmvi.de/SharedDocs/DE/Publikationen/DG/bericht-der-ethik-kommission.pdf?__blob=publicationFile

[DE 38] https://www.ethikrat.org/en/the-german-ethics-council/

[DE 39] https://www.ethikrat.org/forum-bioethik/die-medizin-nimmts-persoenlich-moeglichkeiten-und-grenzen-der-individualisierung-von-diagnose-und-therapie/?cookieLevel=not-set&cHash=6bbb88b137aaac5c3f2b32d36474b578

[DE 40] https://www.ethikrat.org/fileadmin/Publikationen/Stellungnahmen/englisch/opinion-the-future-of-genetic-diagnosis.pdf

[DE 41] https://www.ethikrat.org/publikationen/publikationsdetail/?tx_wwt3shop_detail%5Bproduct%5D=4&tx_wwt3shop_detail%5Baction%5D=index&tx_wwt3shop_detail%5Bcontroller%5D=Products&cHash=7bb9aadb656b877f9dbd49a61e39df2f

[DE 42] https://www.ethikrat.org/en/press-releases/2017/what-will-the-future-with-intelligent-machines-be-like/?cookieLevel=not-set

[DE 43] https://www.din.de/en

[DE 44] https://www.din.de/de/din-und-seine-partner/presse/mitteilungen/arbeitsausschuss-kuenstliche-intelligenz-gegruendet-259904

[DE 45] https://www.bundesnetzagentur.de/EN/Areas/Energy/Companies/SecurityOfSupply/SecuritySupply_node.html

[DE 46] http://www.spiegel.de/netzwelt/netzpolitik/sicherheitsbehoerden-halten-europaweiten-stromausfall-nach-hackerangriff-fuer-moeglich-a-1224727.html

[DE 47] https://politik-digital.de/news/smart-meter-datenschutz-147749/

[DE 48] https://openschufa.de

[DE 49] https://algorithmwatch.org/en/schufa-a-black-box-openschufa-results-published/

[DE 50] https://www.mannheim.de/de/nachrichten/startschuss-fuer-intelligente-videoueberwachung

[DE 51] https://netzpolitik.org/2018/mannheim-startet-videoueberwachung-mit-verhaltensscannern/

 

ITALY

[IT 1] https://www.repubblica.it/economia/2018/06/15/news/robot_e_algoritmi_gli_italiani_temono_il_furto_del_lavoro-199074228/

[IT 2] https://www.corriere.it/scuola/secondaria/17_marzo_22/mobilita-prof-giudice-miur-renda-note-procedure-trasferimenti-1b02445a-0ee8-11e7-b19a-5283fae0a63e.shtml

[IT 3] https://ia.italia.it/assets/whitepaper.pdf

[IT 4] http://www.sviluppoeconomico.gov.it/images/stories/documenti/Summary%20of%20the%20Initiative.pdf

[IT 5] https://nexa.polito.it/about-en

[IT 6] https://nexa.polito.it/data-and-algorithm-ethics

[IT 7] http://www.camera.it/leg17/1179

[IT 8] http://www.camera.it/application/xmanager/projects/leg17/commissione_internet/testo_definitivo_inglese.pdf

[IT 9] https://www.agi.it/cronaca/algoritmo_miur_assegnazioni_insegnanti-1896615/news/2017-06-20/

[IT 10] https://www.orizzontescuola.it/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Perizia-tecnica-preliminare-pdf.pdf

[IT 11] https://www.cattolicanews.it/l-algoritmo-che-fa-bene-alla-salute

[IT 12] https://www.sanitainformazione.it/salute/aderenza-terapie-cronicita-algorimo/

[IT 13] https://assr.regione.emilia-romagna.it/it/ricerca-innovazione/utilizzo-dati-amministrativi-integrati/rischio-ospedalizzazione

[IT 14] https://assr.regione.emilia-romagna.it/it/servizi/pubblicazioni/rapporti-documenti/report-risker-2018

[IT 15] https://assr.regione.emilia-romagna.it/it/servizi/pubblicazioni/rapporti-documenti/report-risker-2018

[IT 16] https://assr.regione.emilia-romagna.it/it/servizi/pubblicazioni/rapporti-documenti/report-risker-2018

[IT 17] http://www.poliziadistato.it/articolo/135b92536bb3957899899171

[IT 18] https://www.poliziadistato.it/statics/06/20160627-ct-sari–4-.pdf

[IT 19] https://www.poliziadistato.it/statics/46/623—decreto-di-aggiudicazione-parsec-3.26-lotto-1-sari–2–signed.pdf

[IT 20] https://www.poliziadistato.it/statics/28/624—decreto-di-aggiudicazione-rti-bt-lotto-2-sari-signed.pdf

[IT 21] https://medium.com/@ORARiccardo/anche-litalia-si-%C3%A8-munita-di-un-sistema-di-riconoscimento-facciale-4a6f4c4e4f3f

[IT 22] https://www.termometropolitico.it/1287472_risparmiometro-online-tasse-conti-correnti.html

[IT 23] https://www.sose.it/sites/default/files/inline-files/Indici%20sintetici%20di%20affidabilita%CC%80_19.09.18.pdf

[IT 24] http://www.poliziadistato.it/statics/16/la-chiave-del-crimine.pdf

[IT 25] https://milano.corriere.it/notizie/cronaca/18_aprile_10/milano-programma-anti-rapine-diventa-startup-sicurezza-a355ba22-3c81-11e8-87b2-a646d975b0f5.shtml

[IT 26] https://milano.corriere.it/notizie/cronaca/15_marzo_08/colpo-supermarket-previsto-computer-due-arresti-c907f418-c571-11e4-a88d-7584e1199318.shtml

[IT 27] https://milano.corriere.it/notizie/cronaca/15_marzo_08/colpo-supermarket-previsto-computer-due-arresti-c907f418-c571-11e4-a88d-7584e1199318.shtml

[IT 28] https://www.ilmessaggero.it/primopiano/cronaca/algoritmo_reati-3420795.html
[IT 29] http://www.esecurity.trento.it/

[IT 30] http://www.esecurity.trento.it/report/eCrime-eSecurity-Guidelines.pdf

 

NETHERLANDS

[NL 1] https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten/rapporten/2018/06/01/nederlandse-digitaliseringsstrategie

[NL 2] https://commit2data.nl/en/about-commit2data

[NL 3] https://www.digitaleoverheid.nl/nldigibeter/

[NL 4] https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken/detail?id=2018Z14843&did=2018D41404

[NL 5] https://www.wrr.nl/publicaties/brieven/2018/06/11/adviesaanvraag-artificial-intelligence

[NL 6] https://english.wrr.nl/publications/policy-briefs/2017/01/31/big-data-and-security-policies-serving-security-protecting-freedom

[NL 7] https://www.raadvanstate.nl/pers/persberichten/tekst-persbericht.html?id=1178&summary_only=&category_id=8

[NL 8] https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken/brieven_regering/detail?id=2018Z19957&did=2018D52382

[NL 9] https://www.tweedekamer.nl/debat_en_vergadering/commissievergaderingen/details?id=2018A00721

[NL 10] https://www.rechtspraak.nl/Organisatie-en-contact/Organisatie/Rechtbanken/Rechtbank-Oost-Brabant/Nieuws/Paginas/Rechtbank-en-universiteit-stellen-leerstoel-Data-Science-Rechtspraak-in.aspx?pk_campaign=pvs

[NL 11] https://www.bitsoffreedom.nl/

[NL 12] https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken/detail?id=2018Z15669&did=2018D43330

[NL 13] http://hollandtransparant.nu/

[NL 14] http://www.kafkabrigade.org/

[NL 15] http://allai.nl/

[NL 16] https://platformburgerrechten.nl

[NL 17] https://www.privacyfirst.nl/

[NL 18] https://www.rathenau.nl/en/digital-society

[NL 19] https://wetenschapsagenda.nl/

[NL 20] https://www.thedigitalsociety.info/

[NL 21] https://www.uva.nl/shared-content/faculteiten/nl/faculteit-der-maatschappij-en-gedragswetenschappen/nieuws/2018/10/geautomatiseerde-besluitvorming-door-ai.html

[NL 22] https://pure.uvt.nl/ws/portalfiles/portal/20399771/Van_Eck_Geautomatiseerde_ketenbesluiten.pdf

[NL 23] https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken/wetsvoorstellen/detail?cfg=wetsvoorsteldetails&qry=wetsvoorstel%3A34972

[NL 24] https://www.internetconsultatie.nl/wgs

[NL 25] https://www.eerstekamer.nl/wetsvoorstel/34838_experimenteerwet

[NL 26] https://www.digitaleoverheid.nl/nldigibeter/

[NL 27] https://www.groene.nl/artikel/vonnis-te-koop

[NL 28] https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken/kamervragen/detail?id=2018Z00881&did=2018D2497

[NL 29] https://www.groene.nl/artikel/u-staat-op-een-zwarte-lijst

[NL 30] https://www.villamedia.nl/artikel/het-algoritme-kiest-mee

[NL 31] https://www.hollandtimes.nl/articles/national/predicting-crime-using-big-data/

[NL 32] https://nos.nl/artikel/2173288-politie-gaat-misdaad-voorspellen-met-nieuw-systeem.html

[NL 33] https://www.thehaguesecuritydelta.com/media/com_hsd/report/114/document/NL-Smart-City-Strategie-.pdf

[NL 34] https://vng.nl/onderwerpenindex/dienstverlening-en-informatiebeleid/nieuws/rapport-datagedreven-sturing-bij-gemeenten-samen-aanpakken

[NL 35] https://algorithmwatch.org/en/high-risk-citizens/

[NL 36] https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten/kamerstukken/2018/05/28/beantwoording-kamervragen-over-algoritme-voorspelt-wie-fraude-pleegt-bij-bijstandsuitkering

[NL 37] https://bijvoorbaatverdacht.nl/

 

POLAND

[PL 1] https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/eu-member-states-sign-cooperate-artificial-intelligence

[PL 2] http://sobieski.org.pl/iot-i-ai-w-polsce/

[PL 3] http://naukawpolsce.pap.pl/aktualnosci/news%2C29864%2Cgowin-musimy-opracowac-narodowa-strategie-rozwoju-sztucznej-inteligencji

[PL 4] https://www.gov.pl/documents/31305/436699/Za%C5%82o%C5%BCenia_do_strategii_AI_w_Polsce_-_raport.pdf/a03eb166-0ce5-e53c-52a4-3bfb903edf0a

[PL 5] https://www.gov.pl/documents/31305/436699/V4_NON_PAPER_ON_AI_09_04_2018.pdf/73c31f1a-7de0-ec00-c02e-7db894c21d9c

[PL 6] http://panoptykon.org/

[PL 7] https://epf.org.pl/

[PL 8] https://epf.org.pl/en/projects/algovrithms/

[PL 9] http://centrumcyfrowe.pl/

[PL 10] http://internetjestdlaludzi.pl/

[PL 11] https://news.microsoft.com/uploads/prod/sites/58/2018/06/Iloraz_sztucznej_inteligencji.pdf

[PL 12] https://wiadomosci.wp.pl/resort-nie-chce-ujawnic-jak-losowani-sa-sedziowie-ministerstwo-chce-miec-system-pod-swoja-kontrola-6219448988575873a

[PL 13] https://www.chip.pl/2017/10/chip-dlaczego-nie-mozemy-poznac-algorytmu-ktory-losuje-sedziow/

[PL 14] https://www.rp.pl/Sedziowie-i-sady/307179914-Beda-zmiany-w-losowaniu-skladow-orzekajacych-w-sadach.html

[PL 15] http://wroclaw.wyborcza.pl/wroclaw/7,35771,23544016,zamieszanie-z-rekrutacja-do-zlobkow-299-dzieci-najpierw-sie.html?disableRedirects=true

[PL 16] https://www.assecods.pl/oferta/administracja-terenowa/platforma-zarzadzania-oswiata/

[PL 17] https://www.canard.gitd.gov.pl/

[PL 18] https://www.pb.pl/elektryki-fotoradarom-sie-nie-klaniaja-938001

[PL 19] https://panoptykon.org/sites/default/files/leadimage-biblioteka/panoptykon_profiling_report_final.pdf

[PL 20] https://panoptykon.org/wiadomosc/co-zawiera-algorytm-sluzacy-do-profilowania-w-urzedach-pracy

[PL 21] https://panoptykon.org/wiadomosc/rpo-kieruje-profilowanie-bezrobotnych-do-trybunalu-konstytucyjnego

[PL 22] https://www.rpo.gov.pl/pl/content/tk-szczeg%C3%B3%C5%82y-profilowania-pomocy-dla-bezrobotnego-maj%C4%85-by%C4%87-uregulowane-w-ustawie

[PL 23] https://forsal.pl/artykuly/1246094,algorytmy-uszczelnia-system-zdrowia-nfz-bedzie-sledzil-nieprawidlowosci.html

[PL 24] https://one2tribe.pl/

[PL 25] http://blog.kurasinski.com/wojciech-ozimek-one2tribe-machine-learning-jest-obecnie-bardziej-obiecujace-biznesowo-niz-ar-mobile-czy-blockchain/

[PL 26] http://nethone.com/

 

SLOVENIA

[SI 1] http://www.mju.gov.si/si/novinarsko_sredisce/novica/9596/

[SI 2] https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/eu-member-states-sign-cooperate-artificial-intelligence

[SI 3] http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-18-2902_en.htm

[SI 4] http://www.mju.gov.si/fileadmin/mju.gov.si/pageuploads/SOJ/2017/digitalna_preobrazba_brosura/Slovenian_Digital_Transformation_January_2018.pdf

[SI 5] https://joinup.ec.europa.eu/sites/default/files/inline-files/eGovernment%20in%20Slovenia%20-%20February%202016%20-%20v1_00.pdf

[SI 6] https://www.dsavic.net/2018/10/18/shizofrenija-nekega-podjeta/

[SI 7] http://nova24tv.si

[SI 8] https://www.telekom.si/en/about-us/company/compliance

[SI 9] http://www.soz.si

[SI 10] https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/code-practice-disinformation

[SI 11] http://www.zemanta.com

[SI 12] http://www.vlada.si/predsednik_vlade/sporocila_za_javnost/sporocilo_za_javnost/a/odziv_predsednika_vlade_na_oglasevanje_podjetij_v_medijih_ki_sirijo_sovrazne_vsebine_1502/

[SI 13] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0GnBFJ4SlFw

[SI 14] http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+MOTION+B8-2018-0360+0+DOC+XML+V0//SL&language=sl

[SI 15] https://www.eticen.it

[SI 16] http://www.sist.si/en

[SI 17] https://www.delo.si/novice/slovenija/nova-dolocila-policiji-razkrivajo-s-kom-in-kam-potujete.html

[SI 18] https://www.ip-rs.si/novice/sporocilo-za-javnost-informacijski-pooblascenec-je-zaprosil-varuha-clovekovih-pravic-za-1066/

[SI 19] http://www.varuh-rs.si/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf/SPOROCILA_SREDSTVOM_OBVESCANJA/1-6-8-2017-5.pdf

[SI 20] https://www.uradni-list.si/glasilo-uradni-list-rs/vsebina?urlurid=2017462

[SI 21] https://www.nlb.si/klikin?gclid=EAIaIQobChMInZKIiKCa3gIVgsYYCh0F5wfpEAAYASAAEgIYRvD_BwE

[SI 22] http://sisbon.si/en

[SI 23] http://www.pisrs.si/Pis.web/pregledPredpisa?id=ZAKO7517

[SI 24] https://e-metis.si/welcome

[SI 25] http://www.mizs.gov.si/en/

[SI 26] https://dis.ijs.si/?p=2049

[SI 27] http://www.eurydice.si/novice/zadnje-novice/nov-sistem-ijs-za-zgodnje-zaznavanje-ucnih-tezav-metis/

[SI 28] http://www.triglav.si

[SI 29] http://www.fu.gov.si

 

SPAIN

[SP 1] https://avancedigital.gob.es/en-us/Paginas/index.aspx

[SP 2] https://www.iiia.csic.es/barcelonadeclaration/

[SP 3] http://www.sercobe.es/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/estrategia-digital-espana-inteligente.pdf

[SP 4] http://www.mineco.gob.es/portal/site/mineco/menuitem.ac30f9268750bd56a0b0240e026041a0/?vgnextoid=0e087cb11d83e510VgnVCM1000001d04140aRCRD&vgnextchannel=9cff035203278510VgnVCM1000001d04140aRCRD

[SP 5] http://www.ciencia.gob.es/stfls/MICINN/Prensa/FICHEROS/2018/PlanEstatalIDI.pdf

[SP 6] https://www.elperiodicodearagon.com/noticias/aragon/itainnova-tendra-2-anos-primer-centro-inteligencia-artificial-aragon_1270233.html

[SP 7] http://smartcatalonia.gencat.cat/en/smartcat/que_es/

[SP 8] https://web.archive.org/web/20181112181809/http://fairness-measures.org:80/

[SP 9] https://www.iiia.csic.es/barcelonadeclaration/

[SP 10] https://www.boe.es/buscar/act.php?id=BOE-A-2011-9617

[SP 11] https://govern.cat/gov/notes-premsa/308033/govern-impulsa-forum-debat-dissenyar-marc-drets-deures-digitals

[SP 12] https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/10/2/285

[SP 13] https://www.eldiario.es/economia/cambio-criterios-Gobierno-beneficiariosredujera_0_311819578.html

[SP 14] https://innovadores.larazon.es/es/not/el-coste-de-no-innovar

[SP 15] https://www.ucm.es/otri/veripol-inteligencia-artificial-a-la-caza-de-denuncias-falsas/

[SP 16] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S095070511830128X

[SP 17] https://elpais.com/tecnologia/2018/09/16/actualidad/1537135174_883514.html

[SP 18] https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/communities/en/community/humaint/article/song%C3%BCl-tolan-participated-algorithms-society-workshop

[SP 19] http://cejfe.gencat.cat/web/.content/home/recerca/cataleg/crono/2018/factorsProtector_CA.pdf

[SP 20] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GcL55opJXys

[SP 21] http://cejfe.gencat.cat/web/.content/home/recerca/cataleg/crono/2015/taxa_reincidencia_2014/tasa_reincidencia_2014_informe_ejecutivo.pdf

[SP 22] https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=5835508

[SP 23] https://elpais.com/tecnologia/2018/11/01/actualidad/1541030256_106965.html

[SP 24] https://www.muyinteresante.es/tecnologia/inteligencia-artificial/articulo/envejeceremos-menos-y-se-acabara-la-soledad-con-la-inteligencia-artificial-641533733975

[SP 25] https://bismart.com/en/illegal-tourist-apartment-rental-detection/

[SP 26] https://bismart.com/es/soluciones-business-intelligence/crime-prediction/

[SP 27] https://cincodias.elpais.com/cincodias/2017/05/22/legal/1495460312_246726.html

[SP 28] https://jurimetria.wolterskluwer.es/content/Inicio.aspx

[SP 29] https://bbvaopen4u.com/es/actualidad/inteligencia-artificial-y-big-data-aplicados-al-negocio-bancario

[SP 30] https://www.infosalus.com/salud-investigacion/noticia-combinacion-neuroimagen-aprendizaje-automatico-nuevas-vias-diagnostico-trastorno-bipolar-20180926122212.html

[SP 31] https://www.efe.com/efe/america/tecnologia/presentan-el-primer-medico-artificial-que-diagnostica-con-un-91-por-ciento-de-acierto/20000036-3256638

[SP 32] https://bit.ly/2OM7eVL

[SP 33] https://www.diariomedico.com/tecnologia/inteligencia-artificial-para-aprovechar-el-85-por-ciento-de-los-datos-de-la-historia-clinica.html

[SP 34] https://preprints.jmir.org/preprint/12539

 

SWEDEN

[SE 1] https://www.kth.se/forskning/artiklar/miljardsatsning-pa-forskning-om-artificiell-intelligens-1.773625

[SE 2] https://www.regeringen.se/informationsmaterial/2018/05/nationell-inriktning-for-artificiell-intelligens/

[SE 3] https://www.vinnova.se/globalassets/dokument/ai-analys-slutrapport-180430-final.pdf

[SE 4] https://www.regeringen.se/4a4538/contentassets/9f9f351f332841e48eacf2c34350f24d/samordnad-och-accelererad-policyutveckling-kopplad-till-den-fjarde-industriella-revolutionens-teknologier.pdf

[SE 5] https://www.regeringen.se/pressmeddelanden/2018/09/jon-simonsson-blir-ordforande-i-kommitte-for-framtidens-teknik/

[SE 6] https://www.regeringen.se/rattsliga-dokument/statens-offentliga-utredningar/2018/03/vagen-till-sjalvkorande-fordon—introduktion/

[SE 7] https://www.regeringen.se/49381d/contentassets/0fc1ef6f51794961b20c0c9a965164f6/sou-2018_16_del1_webb.pdf (includes a 33-page summary of findings in English)

[SE 8] http://www.addai.org/

[SE 9] https://www.iis.se/lar-dig-mer/guider/digitalis-filosofi/den-manskliga-faktorn-det-ar-jag/

[SE 10] http://www.lo.se/start/tal_och_artiklar/variationen_forsvinner_i_manga_arbeten

[SE 11] https://www.unionen.se/sites/default/files/files/unionens_klubbar_om_automatisering_juni_2017.pdf

[SE 12] http://wasp-sweden.org/about/

[SE 13] https://www.kth.se/forskning/artiklar/miljardsatsning-pa-forskning-om-artificiell-intelligens-1.773625

[SE 14] http://www.esamverka.se/download/18.1d63d1d4162d1fa77f4264b/1523951705890/Ra%CC%88ttsligt%20uttalande%20art%2022%20autobeslut.pdf

[SE 15] https://web.retriever-info.com/services/archive/displayDocument?documentId=05085820180816b792e8ef318d420b56e8f8e394157b6c&serviceId=2

[SE 16] https://skl.se/tjanster/press/nyheter/nyhetsarkiv/automatiseratbeslutsfattandeikommunalforvaltning.20460.html

[SE 17] https://www.realtid.se/debatt/sa-kan-jurister-dra-nytta-av-digitaliseringen

[SE 18] https://www.lendo.se

[SE 19] http://www.uc.se

[SE 20] https://www.bisnode.se

[SE 21] https://www.bisnode.se/losningar/automatisera-dina-affarsbeslut/forstark-din-marknadsforing-med-data-notiser-och-triggers/datakvalitet-marketing-automation/

[SE 22] http://www.einride.tech/

[SE 23] https://www.hedvig.com/

[SE 24] https://www.breakit.se/artikel/14126/hedvig-plockar-toppchefer-fran-spotify-och-izettle

[SE 25] https://digital.di.se/artikel/forsakringsutmanaren-hedvig-tar-in-30-miljoner-backas-av-uber-investerare

[SE 25] https://digital.di.se/artikel/nya-miljoner-ska-ta-deras-dyslexi-startup-till-usa

[SE 26] https://www.breakit.se/artikel/10770/titta-kommunens-robot-avgor-vem-som-far-socialbidrag

[SE 27] https://www.breakit.se/artikel/11082/12-av-16-sager-upp-sig-i-protest-mot-kommunens-bidragsrobot

[SE 28] https://www.breakit.se/artikel/11082/12-av-16-sager-upp-sig-i-protest-mot-kommunens-bidragsrobot

UNITED KINGDOM

[UK 1] https://www.theregister.co.uk/2018/06/29/ministry_of_fun_is_not_being_advised_by_google/

[UK 2] https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations

[UK 3] https://uk.linkedin.com/jobs/view/policy-advisor-at-department-for-digital-culture-media-and-sport-dcms-909218415

[UK 4] https://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/consultation-on-the-centre-for-data-ethics-and-innovation/centre-for-data-ethics-and-innovation-consultation#the-centres-activities-and-outputs

[UK 5] https://www.gov.uk/government/news/world-leading-expert-demis-hassabis-to-advise-new-government-office-for-artificial-intelligence

[UK 6] https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/715760/CDEI_consultation__1_.pdf

[UK 7] https://www.gov.uk/government/news/huge-boost-to-uks-data-capability-as-big-business-backs-world-first-ai-talent-scheme-and-chair-of-data-ethics-and-innovation-centre-is-confirmed

[UK 8] https://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/science-and-technology-committee/inquiries/parliament-2017/algorithms-in-decision-making-17-19/

[UK 9] https://www.appg-ai.org/

[UK 10] http://www.appg-ai.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/appgai_2017_findings.pdf

[UK 11] https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201719/ldselect/ldai/100/10002.htm

[UK 12] https://www.gov.uk/government/news/huge-boost-to-uks-data-capability-as-big-business-backs-world-first-ai-talent-scheme-and-chair-of-data-ethics-and-innovation-centre-is-confirmed

[UK 13] https://www.turing.ac.uk/research/research-projects/developing-ethical-framework-explaining-algorithmic-decision-making

[UK 14] https://bigbrotherwatch.org.uk/research-briefings/

[UK 15] http://www.bcs-sgai.org

[UK 16] https://datajusticeproject.net/

[UK 17] https://www.privacyinternational.org/location/united-kingdom

[UK 18] https://www.privacyinternational.org/topics/artificial-intelligence

[UK 19] https://www.aisb.org.uk/aisbpublications

[UK 20] https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/data-ethics-framework/data-ethics-framework

[UK 21] http://www.localgovernmentlawyer.co.uk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=14153%20gov.uk

[UK 22] http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2018/12/part/3/chapter/3/crossheading/automated-individual-decisionmaking/enacted

[UK 23] https://medium.com/@privacyint/uk-data-protection-act-2018-339-pages-still-falls-short-on-human-rights-protection-b8557af5faf

[UK 24] https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-to-review-driving-laws-in-preparation-for-self-driving-vehicles

[UK 25] https://www.lawcom.gov.uk/project/automated-vehicles/

[UK 26] https://www.scotlawcom.gov.uk/law-reform/law-reform-projects/joint-projects/automated-vehicles/

[UK 27] https://ico.org.uk/for-organisations/guide-to-the-general-data-protection-regulation-gdpr/individual-rights/rights-related-to-automated-decision-making-including-profiling/

[UK 28] https://ico.org.uk/for-organisations/data-protection-act-2018/

[UK 29] https://bigbrotherwatch.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Face-Off-final-digital-1.pdf

[UK 30] https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-11909505

[UK 31] http://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/SN01911/SN01911.pdf

[UK 32] https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201617/cmselect/cmpubacc/74/74.pdf

[UK 33] https://imosphere.co.uk/faqs/ras/ras-councils-and-ccgs.php

[UK 34] https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09649069.2013.800288

[UK 35] https://ted.europa.eu/udl?uri=TED:NOTICE:332017-2018:TEXT:EN:HTML&src=0

[UK 36] https://ted.europa.eu/udl?uri=TED:NOTICE:405692-2018:TEXT:EN:HTML&src=0

[UK 37] https://ted.europa.eu/udl?uri=TED:NOTICE:344484-2018:TEXT:EN:HTML&src=0

[UK 38] https://ted.europa.eu/udl?uri=TED:NOTICE:267812-2018:TEXT:EN:HTML&src=0

[UK 39] https://ted.europa.eu/udl?uri=TED:NOTICE:101663-2018:TEXT:EN:HTML&src=0

[UK 40] https://ted.europa.eu/udl?uri=TED:NOTICE:219595-2018:TEXT:EN:HTML&src=0

[UK 41] https://ted.europa.eu/udl?uri=TED:NOTICE:173430-2018:TEXT:EN:HTML&src=0

[UK 42] https://ted.europa.eu/udl?uri=TED:NOTICE:357445-2018:TEXT:EN:HTML&src=0

[UK 43] https://ted.europa.eu/udl?uri=TED:NOTICE:354941-2018:TEXT:EN:HTML&src=0

[UK 44] https://ted.europa.eu/udl?uri=TED:NOTICE:437530-2018:TEXT:EN:HTML&src=0

[UK 45] https://ted.europa.eu/udl?uri=TED:NOTICE:387439-2018:TEXT:EN:HTML&src=0

[UK 46] https://ted.europa.eu/udl?uri=TED:NOTICE:301640-2018:TEXT:EN:HTML&src=0

[UK 47] https://ted.europa.eu/udl?uri=TED:NOTICE:238301-2018:TEXT:EN:HTML&src=0

[UK 48] https://ted.europa.eu/udl?uri=TED:NOTICE:94760-2018:TEXT:EN:HTML&src=0

Published: January 29, 2019
Category: report

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